ECG can determine the abnormality of cardiac function due to arrhythmia, ischemic changes (angina, old myocardial infarction), cardiac hypertrophy, and abnormality of electrolyte.
The baPWV and ABI are markers for arterial stiffness and peripheral arterial disease, respectively. Increased baPWV reflects arterial stiffness, early change of atherosclerosis, and decreased ABI (less than 0.9) indicates stenosis of the limb artery, peripheral arterial obstructive disease.
FMD is an early marker for impaired vascular endothelial function. Less than 5% change in diameter of the forearm vessel before and 5 minutes after vascular occlusion (%FMD) reflects impaired endothelial function.
Accumulation of visceral fat causes metabolic syndrome and diabetes which significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The most accurate method for determining visceral obesity is the measurement of visceral fat area (more than 100 cm2) using the abdominal computed tomography.
IMT is a most established surrogate marker for atherosclerosis in the common and intra carotid artery. This value indicates the risk of stroke and coronary arterial disease. Carotid ultrasonography also can indicate high risk of cardiovascular event by measuring plaque size and stability.
Cardiac ultrasonography can evaluate cardiac function non-invasively, especially cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic functions, the abnormality of valves and reflux of blood flow.
Sarcopenia is characterized by age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function resulting in physical disability, cardiovascular disease and mortality. We evaluate skeletal muscle mass, gait speed and grip strength to diagnose sarcopenia according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia diagnostic algorithm.
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